Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS)
Neuromodulation techniques, based on brain stimulation techniques, are new therapeutic options that have been shown to be effective in cases of pain resistant to conventional pharmacological treatments.
NIBS is a new therapy involving delivery of a weak electrical current through the skull and into the brain while images of the body schema in movement are displayed.
The mechanism behind NIBS is not entirely clear, but studies have demonstrated that it affects several areas in the brain related to pain processing. It has been proposed that the electrical current associated with the images displayed may reverse the abnormal excitability of the brain that is responsible for pain.
Extensive neurophysiological research has shown that the continual flow of electrical current applied through tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) penetrates the layers of the skull and the outside of the brain’s motor cortex, creating a purely neuromodular effect at the neuronal level by modifying the resting membrane potential, thus increasing its capacity to be modulated by external stimuli such as the combination with a behavioural intervention (virtual-reality-type sensory training).